Animated characters adb modelling

Model animation is a form of stop motion animation designed to merge with live action footage to create the illusion of a real-world fantasy sequence.
Many types of models have been created and developed and are mainly depended on the budget of the film:

Clay Models: Unlike most clay figures used for animation, clay models have an inner metal skeleton designed to allow them realistic movements and expressions.

Build-Up Models: these type of models are more expensive and detailed than clay models. they are made by building up pieces of foam on a metal skeleton it to create a body, and then either brushing on several layers of liquid latex on top, or casting soft rubbery skins and attaching then to the padded armature.

“Casted” Models: this type of models are the most expensive type used in the industry and are longer-lasting than the other types. these models start as clay sculptures that on top of them a 2 (or more) part mold is made in order to reproduct all the details of it. then the mold parts are assembled with an armature inside of them, and are filled with a liquid material (foam latex, silicone rubber, urethan foam, etc.) that then forms a soft rubbery “flesh” over the skeleton.
In animation, a model sheet, also known as a character board, character sheet, character study or simply a study, is a document used to help standardize the appearance, poses, and gestures of an animated character. Model sheets are required when large numbers of artists are involved in the production of an animated film to help maintain continuity in characters from scene to scene, as one animator may only do one shot out of the several hundred that are required to complete an animated feature film. A character not drawn according to the production’s standardized model is referred to as off-model.
Model sheets have also been used in the past to maintain graphic continuity over the years for long lasting cartoon productions of short or short features such as the Looney Tunes or Merrie Melodies series.

Model sheets are drawings of posed cartoon or comic strip characters that are created to provide a reference template for several artists who collaborate in the production of a lengthy or multiple-edition work of art such as a comic book, animated film or television series. Model sheets usually depict the character’s head and body as they appear at various angles (a process known as “model rotation”), includes sketches of the character’s hands and feet, and shows several basic facial expressions.

Model sheets ensure that, despite the efforts of several or many artists, their work exhibits unity, as if one artist created the drawings (that is, they are “on model”). They show the character’s structure, proportions, attire, and body language. Often, several sheets are required to depict a character’s subtler emotional and physical attitudes.

Depending on the whim of animation direction, deviations from the model may be permitted in the course of final animation; this “tightness” of model is a major distinguishing factor in overall animation style, as it constitutes a tradeoff between expressiveness and smoothness/consistency. As such, the usage of models varies widely between studios and projects.

Model sheets can also be used in the construction of costumes or sculpted figurines.Model sheets also provide notes that present specific information about how to develop particular features of the character, such as his or her head shape, hair length and style, size and position of the eyes and the mouth.